CANDIDAL BALANITIS. DEFINITION. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans . The most common cause of balanitis is Candida albicans. In common usage, “balanitis” and “balanoposthitis” are interchangeable, although balanoposthitis occurs only in uncircumcised males. For the. Zoon balanitis (ZB) is one of the benign nonvenereal dermatoses, which presents as a solitary, persistent erythematous plaque usually on the glans penis.

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Abstract The diagnosis and management of nonvenereal diseases are always a tough challenge for the dermatologist due to lack of studies on its diagnostic criteria and standard treatment guidelines. Insulitis Hypophysitis Thyroiditis Parathyroiditis Adrenalitis. Macrophage Epithelioid cell Giant cell Granuloma. Financial support and sponsorship Nil.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Balanitis is uncommon in circumcised men and in many cases preputial dysfunction is a causal or contributing factor. Some authors have also suggested that aseptic technique applied during circumcision, followed by regular cleaning during healing, might lead to improvement of the condition.

It is an idiopathic, chronic, benign inflammatory mucositis of the genitalia that clinically presents as a solitary, shiny, well-defined erythematous plaque on the glans.

Pearce J, Fernando I. Promotion of good hygiene is an easy and potentially beneficial measure. J Cosmet Laser Ther. YAG laser – Few studies have reported Er: Some authors have found an association between ZB and erythroplasia of Queyrat; while others believe that ZB can precede carcinoma of the penis, supposing that the carcinogenic changes may arise in the chronically inflamed mucosa of ZB.


Hematospermia Retrograde ejaculation Postorgasmic illness syndrome. First, CO 2 laser was used by Baldwin et al.

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The value of a multi-specialty service, including genitourinary medicine, dermatology and urology input, in the management of male genital dermatoses. Plasma cell balanitis and vulvitis of Zoon.

In contrast to this, the adjacent normal skin shows a typical honeycomb pattern and round papillary vessels. Most of the researchers have used TCIs in ZB for 4—8 weeks resulting in significant clinical improvement without any severe side effect. Pareiitis und balanitis plasmacellularis. D ICD – Surabhi Dayal and Priyadarshini Sahu.

The treatment of Zoon’s balanitis with the carbon dioxide balanopostitiss. Changes in dermal vasculature include vascular dilatation with singular vertical or oblique orientation of proliferated individual vessels, which is characteristic of ZB.

Etiology and pathogenesis of this condition are still speculative. InZoon first recognized this entity in eight male patients with chronic balanitis.

Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of plasma cell balanitis. Diseases of the skin; pp. Male diseases of the pelvis and genitals N40—N51— Reflectance confocal microscopy [ 25 ] Reflectance confocal microscopy RCM is an in vivo imaging method used to obtain morphologic information about both the architecture and single cells in the epidermis and superficial dermis by Vivascope Thus, there is a lack of supportive evidence for this hypothesis.

Plasma cell balanitis treated with tacrolimus 0. The exact mechanism of action of TCIs in these conditions is not known. Initial treatment in adults often involves simply pulling back the foreskin and cleaning the penis. Indian J Sex Transm Dandidiasica. Circumscribed plasma cell balanoposthitis and conjunctivitis in the same patient. According to a study by Petersen et al. Histopathological examination ZB has very distinct histopathological changes affecting both epidermis and dermis.


All the genital lesions are not sexually transmitted. A report of two cases treated with pimecrolimus. These are more common in cases with a dense infiltrate. ZB has very distinct histopathological changes affecting both epidermis and dermis. Report of three cases.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Plasma cell balanitis of Zoon treated candiviasica with topical tacrolimus. Report of two cases of a benign from plasmacytosis pudendi Arch Dermatol. Topical tacrolimus, genital lichen sclerosus, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma.

However, long-term controlled studies are needed to confirm its effect and to know the dose and duration of therapy for complete clearance in ZB [ Table 2 ]. Lichen aureus of the glans penis as an expression of Zoon’s balanitis.

Topical application of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus accelerates carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Balanoposthitis is believed to have contributed to the decline to near-extinction of Gilbert’s potoroo.

Rarely blood-stained discharge or dyspareunia has been described. Plasma cell balanitis of Zoon: Medical management [ Table 2 ] Table 2 Various medical management of Zoon’s balanitis. Erythroplasia of the female genitalia. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical balanopowtitis, histopathological features, and diagnostic criteria and diagnostic methods of ZB. Dermoscopy of Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis. Petersen CS, Thomsen K.